2.34. References

Aber, J.D., Melillo, J.M. and McClaugherty, C.A., 1990. Predicting long-term patterns of mass loss, nitrogen dynamics, and soil organic matter formation from initial fime litter chemistry in temperate forest ecosystems. Canadian Journal of Botany, 68: 2201-2208.

Aber, J.D., Goodale, C.L., Ollinger, S.V., Smith, M.-L., Magill, A.H., Martin, M.E., Hallett, R.A., and Stoddard, J.L. 2003. Is nitrogen deposition altering the nitrogen status of northeastern forests? BioScience 53:375-389.

Ali, A. A., C. Xu, A. Rogers, R. A. Fisher, S. D. Wullschleger, E. Massoud, J. A. Vrugt, J. D. Muss, N. McDowell, and J. Fisher, 2016: A global scale mechanistic model of photosynthetic capacity (LUNA V1. 0). Geosci. Mod. Dev., 9:587-606.

Allen, C.B., Will, R.E., and Jacobson, M.A. 2005. Production efficiency and radiation use efficiency of four tree species receiving irrigation and fertilization. Forest Science 51:556-569.

Anderson, E.A. 1976. A point energy and mass balance model of a snow cover. NOAA Technical Report NWS 19, Office of Hydrology, National Weather Service, Silver Spring, MD.

André, J.-C., Goutorbe, J.-P., and Perrier, A. 1986. HAPEX-MOBILHY: A hydrologic atmosphere experiment for the study of water budget and evaporation flux at the climatic scale. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 67:138-144.

Andrén, O. and Paustian, K., 1987. Barley straw decomposition in the field: a comparison of models. Ecology 68:1190-1200.

Arah, J.R.M. and Stephen, K.D., 1998. A model of the processes leading to methane emission from peatland. Atmos. Environ. 32:3257-3264.

Arah, J. and Vinten, A., 1995. Simplified models of anoxia and denitrification in aggregated and simple-structured soils. European Journal of Soil Science 46:507-517.

Arendt, A., et al. 2012. Randolph Glacier Inventory: A Dataset of Global Glacier Outlines Version: 1.0, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space, Boulder Colorado, USA. Digital Media.

Arora, V.K. and Boer, G.J. 2005. Fire as an interactive component of dynamic vegetation models. J. Geophys. Res. 110:G02008. DOI:10.1029/2005JG000042.

Arya, S.P. 2001. Introduction to Meteorology. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Asner, G.P., Wessman, C.A., Schimel, D.S., and Archer, S. 1998. Variability in leaf and litter optical properties: implications for BRDF model inversions using AVHRR, MODIS, and MISR. Remote Sens. Environ. 63:243-257.

Axelsson, E., and Axelsson, B. 1986. Changes in carbon allocation patterns in spruce and pine trees following irrigation and fertilization. Tree Phys. 2:189-204.

Atkin OK, Bloomfield KJ, Reich PB, Tjoelker MG, Asner GP, Bonal D et al (2015) Global variability in leaf respiration in relation to climate, plant functional types and leaf traits. New Phytologist 206:614–636

Leaf Respiration in Terrestrial Biosphere Models. In Plant Respiration: Metabolic Fluxes and Carbon Balance, Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration 43, G. Tcherkez, J. Ghashghaie (eds.) Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Badger, A.M., and Dirmeyer, P.A., 2015. Climate response to Amazon forest replacement by heterogeneous crop cover. Hydrol. Earth. Syst. Sci. 19:4547- 4557.

Baird, A.J., Beckwith, C.W., Waldron, S. and Waddington, J.M., 2004. Ebullition of methane-containing gas bubbles from near-surface Sphagnum peat. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31. DOI:10.1029/2004GL021157.

Baldocchi, D., et al. 2001. FLUXNET: A new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 82:2415-2433.

Barbottin, A., Lecomte, C., Bouchard, C., and Jeuffroy, M.-H. 2005. Nitrogen remobilization during grain filling in wheat: Genotypic and environmental effects. Crop Sci. 45:1141-1150.

Batjes, N.H., 2006. ISRIC-WISE derived soil properties on a 5 by 5 arc-minutes global grid. Report 2006/02 (available through : http://www.isric.org)

Berger, A.L. 1978a. Long-term variations of daily insolation and quaternary climatic changes. J. Atmos. Sci. 35:2362-2367.

Berger, A.L. 1978b. A simple algorithm to compute long-term variations of daily or monthly insolation. Contribution de l’Institut d’Astronomie et de Géophysique, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, No. 18.

Berger, A., Loutre, M.-F., and Tricot, C. 1993. Insolation and Earth’s orbital periods. J. Geophys. Res. 98:10341-10362.

Berkowitz, B., and Balberg, I. 1992. Percolation approach to the problem of hydraulic conductivity in porous media. Transport in Porous Media 9:275–286.

Beven, K.J., and Kirkby, M.J. 1979. A physically based variable contributing area model of basin hydrology. Hydrol. Sci. Bull. 24:43-69.

Bohren, C. F., and Huffman, D. R. 1983. Absorption and scattering of light by small particles. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY.

Bonan, G.B. 1996. A land surface model (LSM version 1.0) for ecological, hydrological, and atmospheric studies: Technical description and user’s guide. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-417+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 150 pp.

Bonan, G.B. 1998. The land surface climatology of the NCAR Land Surface Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate 11:1307-1326.

Bonan, G.B. 2002. Ecological Climatology: Concepts and Applications. Cambridge University Press.

Bonan, G.B., Oleson, K.W., Vertenstein, M., Levis, S., Zeng, X., Dai, Y., Dickinson, R.E., and Yang, Z.-L. 2002a. The land surface climatology of the Community Land Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate 15: 3123-3149.

Bonan, G.B., Levis, S., Kergoat, L., and Oleson, K.W. 2002b. Landscapes as patches of plant functional types: An integrating concept for climate and ecosystem models. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 16: 5.1-5.23.

Bonan, G.B., and Levis, S. 2006. Evaluating aspects of the Community Land and Atmosphere Models (CLM3 and CAM3) using a dynamic global vegetation model. J. Climate 19:2290-2301.

Bonan, G.B., Lawrence P.J., Oleson K.W., Levis S., Jung M., Reichstein M., Lawrence, D.M., and Swenson, S.C. 2011. Improving canopy processes in the Community Land Model (CLM4) using global flux fields empirically inferred from FLUXNET data. J. Geophys. Res. 116, G02014. DOI:10.1029/2010JG001593.

Bonan, G. B., Oleson, K.W., Fisher, R.A., Lasslop, G., and Reichstein, M. 2012. Reconciling leaf physiological traits and canopy flux data: Use of the TRY and FLUXNET databases in the Community Land Model version 4, J. Geophys. Res., 117, G02026. DOI:10.1029/2011JG001913.

Bonan, G.B., Williams, M., Fisher, R.A., and Oleson, K.W. 2014. Modeling stomatal conductance in the earth system: linking leaf water-use efficiency and water transport along the soil–plant–atmosphere continuum, Geosci. Model Dev., 7, 2193-2222, doi:10.5194/gmd-7-2193-2014.

Botta, A et al., 2000. A global prognostic scheme of leaf onset using satellite data. Global Change Biology 6.7, pp. 709-725.

Brun, E. 1989. Investigation of wet-snow metamorphism in respect of liquid water content. Ann. Glaciol. 13:22-26.

Brunke, M. A., P. Broxton, J. Pelletier, D. Gochis, P. Hazenberg, D. M. Lawrence, L. R. Leung, G.-Y. Niu, P. A. Troch, and X. Zeng, 2016: Implementing and Evaluating Variable Soil Thickness in the Community Land Model, Version 4.5 (CLM4.5). J. Clim. 29:3441-3461.

Brzostek, E. R., J. B. Fisher, and R. P. Phillips, 2014. Modeling the carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: Mycorrhizal trade-offs and multipath resistance uptake improve predictions of retranslocation. J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci., 119, 1684–1697, doi:10.1002/2014JG002660.

Bugmann, H., and Solomon, A.M. 2000. Explaining forest composition and biomass across multiple biogeographical regions. Ecol. Appl. 10:95-114.

Busing, R.T. 2005. Tree mortality, canopy turnover, and woody detritus in old cove forests of the southern Appalachians. Ecology 86:73-84.

Buzan, J.R., Oleson, K., and Huber, M. 2015: Implementation and comparison of a suite of heat stress metrics within the Community Land Model version 4.5, Geosci. Model Dev., 8, 151-170, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-151-2015.

Byram, G.M., 1959. Combustion of forest fuels. In Forest fire: control and use.(Ed. KP Davis) pp. 61-89.

Campbell, G.S., and Norman, J.M. 1998. An Introduction to Environmental Biophysics (2:math:{}^{nd} edition). Springer-Verlag, New York.

Castillo, G., Kendra, C., Levis, S., and Thornton, P. 2012. Evaluation of the new CNDV option of the Community Land Model: effects of dynamic vegetation and interactive nitrogen on CLM4 means and variability. J. Climate 25:3702–3714.

Cao, M., Marshall, S. and Gregson, K., 1996. Global carbon exchange and methane emissions from natural wetlands: Application of a process-based model. J. Geophys. Res. 101(D9):14,399-14,414.

Chuang Y.L., Oren R., Bertozzi A.L, Phillips N., Katul G.G. 2006. The porous media model for the hydraulic system of a conifer tree: Linking sap flux data to transpiration rate, Ecological Modelling, 191, 447-468, doi:10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2005.03.027.

Churkina, G. et al., 2003. Analyzing the ecosystem carbon dynamics of four European coniferous forests using a biogeochemistry model. Ecosystems, 6: 168-184.

CIESIN: Gridded population of the world version 3 (GPWv3), 2005. Population density grids, Technical report, Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC), Columbia University, Palisades, New York, USA.

Clapp, R.B., and Hornberger, G.M. 1978. Empirical equations for some soil hydraulic properties. Water Resour. Res. 14:601-604.

Clauser, C., and Huenges, E. 1995. Thermal conductivity of rocks and minerals. pp. 105-126. In: T. J. Ahrens (editor) Rock Physics and Phase Relations: A Handbook of Physical Constants. Washington, D.C.

Cleveland, C.C., Townsend, A.R., Schimel, D.S., Fisher, H., Howarth, R.W., Hedin, L.O., Perakis, S.S., Latty, E.F., Von Fischer, J.C., Elseroad, A., and Wasson, M.F. 1999. Global patterns of terrestrial biological nitrogen (N2) fixation in natural ecosystems. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 13:623-645.

Collatz, G.J., Ball, J.T., Grivet, C., and Berry, J.A. 1991. Physiological and environmental regulation of stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, and transpiration: A model that includes a laminar boundary layer. Agric. For. Meteor. 54:107-136.

Collatz, G.J., Ribas-Carbo, M., and Berry, J.A. 1992. Coupled photosynthesis-stomatal conductance model for leaves of C{}_{4} plants. Aust. J. Plant Physiol. 19:519-538.

Colmer, T.D., 2003. Long-distance transport of gases in plants: a perspective on internal aeration and radial oxygen loss from roots. Plant Cell and Environment 26:17-36.

Conway, H., Gades, A., and Raymond, C.F. 1996. Albedo of dirty snow during conditions of melt. Water Resour. Res. 32:1713-1718.

Cosby, B.J., Hornberger, G.M., Clapp, R.B., and Ginn, T.R. 1984. A statistical exploration of the relationships of soil moisture characteristics to the physical properties of soils. Water Resour. Res. 20:682-690.

Crawford, T. W., Rendig, V. V., and Broadent, F. E. 1982. Sources, fluxes, and sinks of nitrogen during early reproductive growth of maize (Zea mays L.). Plant Physiol. 70:1645-1660.

Dahlin, K., R. Fisher, and P. Lawrence, 2015: Environmental drivers of drought deciduous phenology in the Community Land Model. Biogeosciences, 12:5061-5074.

Dai, Y., and Zeng, Q. 1997. A land surface model (IAP94) for climate studies. Part I: formulation and validation in off-line experiments. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 14:433-460.

Dai, Y., et al. 2001. Common Land Model: Technical documentation and user’s guide [Available online at http://climate.eas.gatech.edu/dai/clmdoc.pdf].

Dai, Y., Zeng, X., Dickinson, R.E., Baker, I., Bonan, G.B., Bosilovich, M.G., Denning, A.S., Dirmeyer, P.A., Houser, P.R., Niu, G., Oleson, K.W., Schlosser, C.A., and Yang, Z.-L. 2003. The Common Land Model. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 84:1013-1023.

Dai, Y., Dickinson, R.E., and Wang, Y.-P. 2004. A two-big-leaf model for canopy temperature, photosynthesis, and stomatal conductance. J. Climate 17:2281-2299.

Dai, A., and Trenberth, K.E. 2002. Estimates of freshwater discharge from continents: Latitudinal and seasonal variations. J. Hydrometeor. 3:660-687.

DeFries, R.S., Hansen, M.C., Townshend, J.R.G., Janetos, A.C., and Loveland, T.R. 2000. A new global 1-km dataset of percentage tree cover derived from remote sensing. Global Change Biol. 6:247-254.

Degens, B. and Sparling, G., 1996. Changes in aggregation do not correspond with changes in labile organic C fractions in soil amended with {}^{14}C-glucose. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 28(4/5): 453-462.

de Kauwe, D.A., Kala, J., Lin, Y.-S., Pitman, A.J., Medlyn, B.E., Duursma, R.A., Abramowitz, G., Wang, Y.-P., Miralles, D.G. 2015. A test of an optimal stomatal conductance scheme within the CABLE land surface model. Geosci. Model Dev. 8(2):431-452.

de Vries, D.A. 1963. Thermal Properties of Soils. In: W.R. van Wijk (editor) Physics of the Plant Environment. North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Dickinson, R.E. 1983. Land surface processes and climate-surface albedos and energy balance. Adv. Geophys. 25:305-353.

Dickinson, R.E., Henderson-Sellers, A., and Kennedy, P.J. 1993. Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme (BATS) version 1e as coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-387+STR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO.

Dickinson, R.E., Oleson, K.W., Bonan, G., Hoffman, F., Thornton, P., Vertenstein, M., Yang, Z.-L., and Zeng, X. 2006. The Community Land Model and its climate statistics as a component of the Community Climate System Model. J. Climate 19:2302-2324.

Dingman, S.L. 2002. Physical Hydrology. Second Edition. Prentice Hall, NJ.

Dirmeyer, P.A., Dolman, A.J., and Sato, N. 1999. The pilot phase of the Global Soil Wetness Project. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 80:851-878.

Dobson, J.E., Bright, E.A., Coleman, P.R., Durfee, R.C., and Worley, B.A. 2000. LandScan: A global population database for estimating populations at risk. Photogramm. Eng. Rem. Sens. 66:849-857.

Dorman, J.L., and Sellers, P.J. 1989. A global climatology of albedo, roughness length and stomatal resistance for atmospheric general circulation models as represented by the simple biosphere model (SiB). J. Appl. Meteor. 28:833-855.

Dougherty, R.L., Bradford, J.A., Coyne, P.I., and Sims, P.L. 1994. Applying an empirical model of stomatal conductance to three C4 grasses. Agric. For. Meteor. 67:269-290.

Drewniak, B., Song, J., Prell, J., Kotamarthi, V.R., and Jacob, R. 2013. Modeling agriculture in the Community Land Model. Geosci. Model Dev. 6:495-515. DOI:10.5194/gmd-6-495-2013.

Dunfield, P., Knowles, R., Dumont, R. and Moore, T.R., 1993. Methane Production and Consumption in Temperate and Sub-Arctic Peat Soils - Response to Temperature and Ph. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 25:321-326.

Entekhabi, D., and Eagleson, P.S. 1989. Land surface hydrology parameterization for atmospheric general circulation models including subgrid scale spatial variability. J. Climate 2:816-831.

Fang, X. and Stefan, H.G., 1996. Long-term lake water temperature and ice cover simulations/measurements. Cold Regions Science and Technology 24:289-304.

Farouki, O.T. 1981. The thermal properties of soils in cold regions. Cold Regions Sci. and Tech. 5:67-75.

Farquhar, G.D., von Caemmerer, S., and Berry, J.A. 1980. A biochemical model of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in leaves of C{}_{3} species. Planta 149:78-90.

Farquhar, G.D., and von Caemmerer, S. 1982. Modeling of photosynthetic response to environmental conditions. pp. 549-587. In: O.L. Lange, P.S. Nobel, C.B. Osmond, and H. Zeigler (editors) Encyclopedia of Plant Physiology. Vol. 12B. Physiological Plant Ecology. II. Water Relations and Carbon Assimilation. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Feddema, J., Kauffman, B. 2016. Urban Properties Tool (Version 1.2). NCAR THESIS Tools Library. Retrieved from: https://svn-iam-thesis-release.cgd.ucar.edu/urban_properties/. doi:10.5065/D6R78CMT.

Ferrari, J.B., 1999. Fine-scale patterns of leaf litterfall and nitrogen cycling in an old-growth forest. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 29: 291-302.

Firestone, M.K. and Davidson, E.A. 1989. Exchange of Trace Gases between Terrestrial Ecosystems and the Atmosphere. In: M.O. Andreae and D.S. Schimel (Editors). John Wiley and Sons, pp. 7-21.

Fisher, J. B., S. Sitch, Y. Malhi, R. A. Fisher, C. Huntingford, and S.-Y. Tan, 2010. Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: A mechanistic, globally applicable model of plant nitrogen uptake, retranslocation, and fixation. Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 24, GB1014, doi:10.1029/2009GB003621.

Fisher, R. A., S. Muszala, M. Verteinstein, P. Lawrence, C. Xu, N. G. McDowell, R. G. Knox, C. Koven, J. Holm, B. M. Rogers, A. Spessa, D. Lawrence, and G. Bonan, 2015: Taking off the training wheels: the properties of a dynamic vegetation model without climate envelopes, CLM4.5(ED). Geosci. Model Dev., 8: 3593-3619, doi:10.5194/gmd-8-3593-2015.

Fisher, R.A., C.D. Koven, W.R.L. Anderegg, et al., 2018: Vegetation demographics in Earth System Models: A review of progress and priorities. Glob Change Biol. 2018;24:35–54. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13910

Flanner, M.G., and Zender. C.S. 2005. Snowpack radiative heating: Influence on Tibetan Plateau climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32:L06501. DOI:10.1029/2004GL022076.

Flanner, M.G., and Zender, C.S. 2006. Linking snowpack microphysics and albedo evolution. J. Geophys. Res. 111:D12208. DOI:10.1029/2005JD006834.

Flanner, M.G., Zender, C.S., Randerson, J.T., and Rasch, P.J. 2007. Present day climate forcing and response from black carbon in snow. J. Geophys. Res. 112:D11202. DOI:10.1029/2006JD008003.

Flatau, P.J., Walko, R.L., and Cotton, W.R. 1992. Polynomial fits to saturation vapor pressure. J. Appl. Meteor. 31:1507-1513.

Foley, J.A. et al., 1996. An integrated biosphere model of land surface processes, terrestrial carbon balance, and vegetation dynamics. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10.4, pp. 603-628.

Friedl, M.A., McIver, D.K., Hodges, J.C.F., Zhang, X.Y., Muchoney, D., Strahler, A.H., Woodcock, C.E., Gopal, S., Schneider, A., Cooper, A., Baccini, A., Gao, F., and Schaaf, C. 2002. Global land cover mapping from MODIS: algorithms and early results. Remote Sens. Environ. 83:287-302.

Frolking, S., et al. 2001. Modeling Northern Peatland Decomposition and Peat Accumulation. Ecosystems. 4:479-498.

Fyllas, N.M. et al., 2014. Analysing Amazonian forest productivity using a new individual and trait- based model (TFS v. 1). Geoscientific Model Development 7.4, pp. 1251-1269.

Gallais, A., Coque, M. Quillere, I., Prioul, J., and Hirel, B. 2006. Modeling postsilking nitrogen fluxes in maize (Zea mays) using 15N-labeling field experiments. New Phytologist 172:696-707.

Gallais, A., Coque, M., Gouis, J. L., Prioul, J. L., Hirel, B., and Quillere, I. 2007. Estimating the proportion of nitrogen remobilization and of postsilking nitrogen uptake allocated to maize kernels by Nitrogen-15 labeling. Crop Sci. 47:685-693.

Galloway, J.N., et al. 2004. Nitrogen cycles: past, present, and future. Biogeochem. 70:153-226.

Garcia, R.L., Kanemasu, E.T., Blad, B.L., Bauer, A., Hatfield, J.L., Major, D.A., Reginato, R.J., and Hubbard, K.G. 1988. Interception and use efficiency of light in winter wheat under different nitrogen regimes. Agric. For. Meteor. 44:175-186.

Gardner, W. R. 1960. Dynamic aspects of water availability to plants, Soil Sci., 89, 63–73.

Gash, J.H.C., Nobre, C.A., Roberts, J.M., and Victoria, R.L. 1996. An overview of ABRACOS. pp. 1-14. In: J.H.C. Gash, C.A. Nobre, J.M. Roberts, and R.L. Victoria (editors) Amazonian Deforestation and Climate. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, England.

Getirana, A. C. V., A. Boone, D. Yamazaki, B. Decharme, F. Papa, and N. Mognard. 2012. The hydrological modeling and analysis platform (HyMAP): Evaluation in the Amazon basin, J. Hydrometeorol., 13, 1641-1665.

Ghimire, B., W. J. Riley, C. D. Koven, M. Mu, and J. T. Randerson, 2016: Representing leaf and root physiological traits in CLM improves global carbon and nitrogen cycling predictions. J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys. 8: 598-613.

Gholz, H.L., Perry, C.S., Cropper, W.P., Jr. and Hendry, L.C., 1985. Litterfall, decomposition, and nitrogen and phosphorous dynamics in a chronosequence of slash pine (Pinus elliottii) plantations. Forest Science, 31: 463-478.

Giglio, L., Csiszar, I., and Justice, C.O. 2006. Global distribution and seasonality of active fires as observed with the Terra and Aqua Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors. J. Geophys. Res. 111:G02016. DOI:10.1029/2005JG000142.

Global Soil Data Task 2000. Global soil data products CD-ROM (IGBP-DIS). International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme-Data and Information Available Services [Available online at http://www.daac.ornl.gov].

Gomes, E.P.C., Mantovani, W., and Kageyama, P.Y. 2003. Mortality and recruitment of trees in a secondary montane rain forest in southeastern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Biology 63:47-60.

Gosz, J.R., Likens, G.E., and Bormann, F.H. 1973. Nutrient release from decomposing leaf and branch litter in the Hubbard Brook Forest, New Hampshire. Ecological Monographs 43:173-191.

Gotangco Castillo C., Levis S., and Thornton P. 2012. Evaluation of the new CNDV option of the Community Land Model: Effects of dynamic vegetation and interactive nitrogen on CLM4 means and variability. J. Climate 25:3702-3714. DOI:10.1175/JCLID-11-00372.1.

Graham, S.T., Famiglietti, J.S., and Maidment, D.R. 1999. Five-minute, 1/2º, and 1º data sets of continental watersheds and river networks for use in regional and global hydrologic and climate system modeling studies. Water Resour. Res. 35:583-587.

Graven, H., C. E. Allison, D. M. Etheridge, S. Hammer, R. F. Keeling, I. Levin, H. A. J. Meijer, M. Rubino, P. P. Tans, C. M. Trudinger, B. H. Vaughn and J. W. C. White, 2017. Compiled records of carbon isotopes in atmospheric CO2 for historical simulations in CMIP6, Geoscientific Model Development, in review. doi: 10.5194/gmd-2017-166.

Grenfell, T.C., and Warren, S.G. 1999. Representation of a nonspherical ice particle by a collection of independent spheres for scattering and absorption of radiation. J. Geophys. Res. 104(D24):37697-37709.

del Grosso, S.J., et al. 2000. General model for N2O and N2 gas emissions from soils due to dentrification. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14:1045-1060.

Guenther, A., Hewitt, C.N., Erickson, D., Fall, R., Geron, C., Graedel, T., Harley, P., Klinger, L., Lerdau, M., McKay, W.A., Pierce, T., Scholes, B., Steinbrecher, R., Tallamraju, R., Taylor, J., and Zimmerman, P. 1995. A global model of natural volatile organic compound emissions. J. Geophys. Res. 100:8873-8892.

Guenther, A., Karl, T., Harley, P., Wiedinmyer, C., Palmer. P.I., and Geron, C. 2006. Estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions using MEGAN (Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature). Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6:3181–3210.

Guenther, A. B., Jiang, X., Heald, C. L., Sakulyanontvittaya, T., Duhl, T., Emmons, L. K., & Wang, X., 2012. The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions, Geosci. Model Dev., 5, 1471–1492. DOI:10.5194.

Hack, J.J., Caron, J.M., Yeager, S.G., Oleson, K.W., Holland, M.M., Truesdale, J.E., and Rasch, P.J. 2006. Simulation of the global hydrological cycle in the CCSM Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3): mean features. J. Climate 19:2199-2221.

Hansen, M., DeFries, R.S., Townshend, J.R.G., Carroll, M., Dimiceli, C., and Sohlberg, R.A. 2003. Global percent tree cover at a spatial resolution of 500 meters: first results of the MODIS vegetation continuous fields algorithm. Earth Interactions 7:1-15.

Hastings, D.A., Dunbar, P.K., Elphingstone, G.M., Bootz, M., Murakami, H., Maruyama, H., Masaharu, H., Holland, P., Payne, J., Bryant, N.A., Logan, T.L., Muller, J.-P., Schreier, G., and MacDonald, J.S., eds., 1999. The Global Land One-kilometer Base Elevation (GLOBE) Digital Elevation Model, Version 1.0. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305-3328, U.S.A.

Heald, C.L., Henze, D.K., Horowitz, L.W., Feddema, J., Lamarque, J.-F., Guenther, A., Hess, P.G., Vitt, F., Seinfeld, J.H., Goldstein, A.H., and Fung, I. 2008. Predicted change in global secondary organic aerosol concentrations in response to future climate, emissions, and land use change. J. Geophys. Res. 113:D05211. DOI:10.1029/2007JD009092.

Heald, C.L., Wilkinson, M.J., Monson, R.K., Alo, C.A., Wang, G.L., and Guenther, A. 2009. Response of isoprene emission to ambient CO2 changes and implications for global budgets. Global Change Biol. 15:1127-1140. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2008.01802.x

Henderson-Sellers, B. 1985. New formulation of eddy diffusion thermocline models. Appl. Math. Modelling 9:441-446.

Henderson-Sellers, B. 1986. Calculating the surface energy balance for lake and reservoir modeling: A review. Rev. Geophys. 24:625-649.

Henderson-Sellers, A., Yang, Z.-L., and Dickinson, R.E. 1993. The project for intercomparison of land-surface parameterization schemes. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 74: 1335-1349.

Hostetler, S.W., and Bartlein, P.J. 1990. Simulation of lake evaporation with application to modeling lake level variations of Harney-Malheur Lake, Oregon. Water Resour. Res. 26:2603-2612.

Hostetler, S.W., Bates, G.T., and Giorgi, F. 1993. Interactive coupling of a lake thermal model with a regional climate model. J. Geophys. Res. 98:5045-5057.

Hostetler, S.W., Giorgi, F., Bates, G.T., and Bartlein, P.J. 1994. Lake-atmosphere feedbacks associated with paleolakes Bonneville and Lahontan. Science 263:665-668.

Hou, Z., Huang, M., Leung, L.R., Lin, G., and Ricciuto, D.M. 2012. Sensitivity of surface flux simulations to hydrologic parameters based on an uncertainty quantification framework applied to the Community Land Model. J. Geophys. Res. 117:D15108.

Houlton, B.Z., Wang, Y.P., Vitousek, P.M. and Field, C.B., 2008. A unifying framework for dinitrogen fixation in the terrestrial biosphere. Nature, 454(7202), p.327.

Huang, M., and Liang, X. 2006. On the assessment of the impact of reducing parameters and identification of parameter uncertainties for a hydrologic model with applications to ungauged basins. J. Hydrol. 320:37-61.

Hugelius, G., C. Tarnocai, G. Broll, J.G. Canadell, P. Kuhry, adn D.K. Swanson, 2012. The Northern Circumpolar Soil Carbon Database: spatially distributed datasets of soil coverage and soil carbon storage in the northern permafrost regions. Earth Syst. Sci. Data Discuss., 5, 707-733 (available online at (http://dev1.geo.su.se/bbcc/dev/ncscd/).

Hunt, H.W., Ingham, E.R., Coleman, D.C., Elliott, E.T., and Reid, C.P.P. 1988. Nitrogen limitation of production and decomposition in prairie, mountain meadow, and pine forest. Ecology 69:1009-1016.

Hunt, E.R., Jr. and Running, S.W., 1992. Simulated dry matter yields for aspen and spruce stands in the north american boreal forest. Canadian Journal of Remote Sensing, 18: 126-133.

Hunt, E.R., Jr. et al., 1996. Global net carbon exchange and intra-annual atmospheric CO2 concentrations predicted by an ecosystem process model and three-dimensional atmospheric transport model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 10: 431-456.

Hurtt, G.C., Frolking, S., Fearon, M.G., Moore, B., Shevliakova, E., Malyshev, S., Pacala, S.W., and Houghton, R.A. 2006. The underpinnings of land-use history: three centuries of global gridded land-use transitions, wood-harvest activity, and resulting secondary lands. Global Change Biol. 12:1208-1229.

Hurtt, G.C., et al. 2011. Harmonization of land-use scenarios for the period 1500-2100: 600 years of global gridded annual land-use transitions, wood harvest, and resulting secondary lands. Climatic Change 109:117-161. DOI:10.1007/s10584-011-0153-2.

Idso, S.B. 1981. A set of equations for full spectrum and 8- to 14-\mu m and 10.5- to 12.5-\mu m thermal radiation from cloudless skies. Water Resour. Res. 17:295-304.

Iiyama, I. and Hasegawa, S., 2005. Gas diffusion coefficient of undisturbed peat soils. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 51:431-435.

Jacksonetal1996: E., and Schulze, E. D. 1996. A global analysis of root distributions for terrestrial biomes Oecologia 108:389–411. DOI:10.1007/BF00333714.

Jackson, T.L., Feddema, J.J., Oleson, K.W., Bonan, G.B., and Bauer, J.T. 2010. Parameterization of urban characteristics for global climate modeling. Annals of the Association of American Geographers. 100:848-865.

Jenkinson, D. and Coleman, K. 2008. The turnover of organic carbon in subsoils. Part 2. Modelling carbon turnover. European Journal of Soil Science 59:400-413.

Jordan, R. 1991. A One-dimensional Temperature Model for a Snow Cover: Technical Documentation for SNTHERM.89. U.S. Army Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory, Special Report 91-16.

Kattge, J., and Knorr, W. 2007. Temperature acclimation in a biochemical model of photosynthesis: a reanalysis of data from 36 species. Plant Cell Environ. 30:1176-1190. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-3040.2007.01690.x.

Kattge, J., Knorr, W., Raddatz, T., and Wirth C. 2009: Quantifying photosynthetic capacity and its relationship to leaf nitrogen content for global–scale terrestrial biosphere models. Global Change Biol. 15:976–991.

Kavetski, D., Binning, P. and Sloan, S.W., 2002. Noniterative time stepping schemes with adaptive truncation error control for the solution of Richards equation. Water Resources Research, 38(10).

Keller, M., Palace, M., Asner, G.P., Pereira, R., Jr. and Silva, J.N.M., 2004. Coarse woody debris in undisturbed and logged forests in the eastern Brazilian Amazon. Global Change Biology, 10: 784-795.

Kellner, E., Baird, A.J., Oosterwoud, M., Harrison, K. and Waddington, J.M., 2006. Effect of temperature and atmospheric pressure on methane (CH4) ebullition from near-surface peats. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33. DOI:10.1029/2006GL027509.

Kimball, J.S., Thornton, P.E., White, M.A. and Running, S.W. 1997. Simulating forest productivity and surface-atmosphere exchange in the BOREAS study region. Tree Physiology 17:589-599.

Kohyama, T., Suzuki, E., Partomihardjo, T., and Yamada, T. 2001. Dynamic steady state of patch-mosaic tree size structure of a mixed diptocarp forest regulated by local crowding. Ecological Research 16:85-98.

Kourzeneva, E., 2009. Global dataset for the parameterization of lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate modeling. ALADIN Newsletter, No 37, July-December, 2009, F. Bouttier and C. Fischer, Eds., Meteo-France, Toulouse, France, 46-53.

Kourzeneva, E., 2010: External data for lake parameterization in Numerical Weather Prediction and climate modeling. Boreal Environment Research, 15, 165-177.

Kourzeneva, E., Asensio, H., Martin, E. and Faroux, S., 2012. Global gridded dataset of lake coverage and lake depth for use in numerical weather prediction and climate modelling. Tellus A 64.

Koven, C., et al. 2009. On the formation of high-latitude soil carbon stocks: The effects of cryoturbation and insulation by organic matter in a land surface model. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36: L21501.

Koven, C.D., et al. 2011. Permafrost carbon-climate feedbacks accelerate global warming. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 108:14769-14774.

Koven, C.D. et al. 2013. The effect of vertically-resolved soil biogeochemistry and alternate soil C and N models on C dynamics of CLM4. Biogeosciences Discussions 10:7201-7256.

Koven, C.D. et al. 2015. Permafrost carbon-climate feedback is sensitive to deep soil carbon decomposability but not deep soil nitrogen dynamics. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science, 112, 12, 3752-3757, doi:10.1073/pnas.1415123112

Koven, C.D., G. Hugelius, D.M. Lawrence, and W.R. Wieder, 2017: Higher climatological temperature sensitivity of soil carbon in cold than warm climates. Nature Clim. Change, 7, doi:10.1038/nclimate3421.

Kucharik, C.J., J.M. Norman, and S.T. Gower, 1998. Measurements of branch area and adjusting leaf area index indirect measurements. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 91.1, pp. 69-88.

Kucharik, C.J., Foley, J.A., Delire, C., Fisher, V.A., Coe, M.T., Lenters, J.D., Young-Molling, C., and Ramankutty, N. 2000. Testing the performance of a dynamic global ecosystem model: water balance, carbon balance, and vegetation structure. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 14: 795–825.

Kucharik, C.J., and Brye, K.R. 2003. Integrated BIosphere Simulator (IBIS) yield and nitrate loss predictions for Wisconsin maize receiving varied amounts of nitrogen fertilizer. Journal of Environmental Quality 32: 247–268.

Ladd, J.N., Jocteur-Monrozier, L. and Amato, M., 1992. Carbon turnover and nitrogen transformations in an alfisol and vertisol amended with [U-{}^{14}C] glucose and [{}^{15}N] ammonium sulfate. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 24: 359-371.

Lamarque, J.-F., et al. 2010. Historical (1850-2000) gridded anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions of reactive gases and aerosols: methodology and application. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10:4963-5019. DOI:10.5194/acpd-10-4963-2010.

Larcher, W. 1995. Physiological Plant Ecology, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg.

Lavigne, M.B., and Ryan, M.G. 1997. Growth and maintenance respiration rates of aspen, black spruce, and jack pine stems at northern and southern BOREAS sites. Tree Phys. 17:543-551.

Law, B.E., Sun, O.J., Campbell, J., Van Tuyl, S. and Thornton, P.E. 2003. Changes in carbon storage and fluxes in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine. Global Change Biology, 9: 510-514.

Lawrence, D.M., Thornton, P.E., Oleson, K.W., and Bonan, G.B. 2007. The partitioning of evapotranspiration into transpiration, soil evaporation, and canopy evaporation in a GCM: Impacts on land-atmosphere interaction. J. Hydrometeor. 8:862-880.

Lawrence, D.M., and Slater, A.G. 2008. Incorporating organic soil into a global climate model. Clim. Dyn. 30. DOI:10.1007/s00382-007-0278-1.

Lawrence, D.M., Slater, A.G., Romanovsky, V.E., and Nicolsky, D.J. 2008. The sensitivity of a model projection of near-surface permafrost degradation to soil column depth and inclusion of soil organic matter. J. Geophys. Res. 113:F02011. DOI:10.1029/2007JF000883.

Lawrence, D.M., K.W. Oleson, M.G. Flanner, P.E. Thornton, S.C. Swenson, P.J. Lawrence, X. Zeng, Z.-L. Yang, S. Levis, K. Sakaguchi, G.B. Bonan, and A.G. Slater, 2011. Parameterization improvements and functional and structural advances in version 4 of the Community Land Model. J. Adv. Model. Earth Sys. 3. DOI:10.1029/2011MS000045.

Lawrence, D.M., Hurtt, G.C., Arneth, A., Brovkin, V., Calvin, K.V., Jones, A.D., Jones, C.D., Lawrence, P.J., de Noblet-Ducoudré, N., Pongratz, J., Seneviratne, S.I., and Shevliakova, E. 2016. The Land Use Model Intercomparison Project (LUMIP) contribution to CMIP6: rationale and experimental design. Geosci. Model Dev. 9:2973-2998. DOI:10.5194/gmd-9-2973-2016.

Lawrence, P.J., and Chase, T.N. 2007. Representing a MODIS consistent land surface in the Community Land Model (CLM 3.0). J. Geophys. Res. 112:G01023. DOI:10.1029/2006JG000168.

Lawrence, P.J., and Chase, T.N. 2010. Investigating the climate impacts of global land cover change in the Community Climate System Model. Int. J. Climatol. 30:2066-2087. DOI:10.1002/joc.2061.

Lawrence, P.J., et al. 2012. Simulating the biogeochemical and biogeophysical impacts of transient land cover change and wood harvest in the Community Climate System Model (CCSM4) from 1850 to 2100. J. Climate 25:3071-3095. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00256.1.

Lehner, B. and Döll, P., 2004. Development and validation of a global database of lakes, reservoirs and wetlands, J. Hydrol., 296, 1–22.

Lehner, B., Verdin, K. and Jarvis, A., 2008. New global hydrograhy derived from spaceborne elevation data. Eos Trans., AGU, 89, 93 – 94.

Le Page, Y., van der Werf, G.R., Morton, D.C., and Pereira, J.M.C. 2010. Modeling fire-driven deforestation potential in Amazonia under current and projected climate conditions. J. Geophys. Res. 115:G03012. DOI:10.1029/2009JG001190.

Lerman, A., 1979. Geochemical processes: Water and sediment environments. John Wiley and Sons, New York, N.Y.

Letts, M.G., Roulet, N.T., Comer, N.T., Skarupa, M.R., and Verseghy, D.L. 2000. Parametrization of peatland hydraulic properties for the Canadian Land Surface Scheme. Atmos.-Ocean 38:141-160.

Levis, S., Wiedinmyer, C., Bonan, G.B., and Guenther, A. 2003. Simulating biogenic volatile organic compound emissions in the Community Climate System Model. J. Geophys. Res. 108:4659. DOI:10.1029/2002JD003203.

Levis, S., Bonan, G.B., Vertenstein, M., and Oleson, K.W. 2004. The community land model’s dynamic global vegetation model (CLM-DGVM): technical description and user’s guide. NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-459+STR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. 50 pp.

Levis, S., Thornton, P., Bonan, G., and Kucharik, C. 2009. Modeling land use and land management with the Community Land Model. iLeaps newsletter, No. 7.

Levis, S., Bonan, G., Kluzek, E., Thornton, P., Jones, A., Sacks, W., and Kucharik, C 2012. Interactive crop management in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1): Seasonal influences on land-atmosphere fluxes. J. Climate 25: 4839-4859. DOI:10.1175/JCLI-D-11-00446.1.

Levis, S., Badger, A., Drewniak, B., Nevison, C., Ren, X. 2016. CLMcrop yields and water requirements: avoided impacts by choosing RCP 4.5 over 8.5. Climatic Change. DOI:10.1007/s10584-016-1654-9.

Li, C., Aber, J., Stange, F., Butterbach-Bahl, K. and Papen, H. 2000. A process-oriented model of N2O and NO emissions from forest soils: 1. Model development. J. Geophys. Res. 105(D4):4369-4384.

Li, F., Zeng, X.-D., and Levis, S. 2012a. A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Biogeosciences 9:2761-2780.

Li, F., Zeng, X. D., and Levis, S. 2012b. Corrigendum to “A process-based fire parameterization of intermediate complexity in a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model” published in Biogeosciences, 9, 2761–2780, 2012”. Biogeosciences 9: 4771-4772.

Li, F., Levis, S., and Ward, D. S. 2013a. Quantifying the role of fire in the Earth system – Part 1: Improved global fire modeling in the Community Earth System Model (CESM1). Biogeosciences 10:2293-2314.

Li, F., and Lawrence, D. 2017. Role of fire in the global land water budget during the 20th century through changing ecosystems. J. Clim. 30: 1894-1908.

Li, H.-Y., Huang, M., Tesfa, T., Ke, Y., Sun, Y., Liu, Y., and Leung, L. R. 2013b. A subbasin-based framework to represent land surface processes in an Earth System Model, Geosci. Model Dev. Discuss. 6:2699-2730. DOI:10.5194/gmdd-6-2699-2013.

Li, H., Huang, M., Wigmosta, M.S., Ke, Y., Coleman, A.M., Leung, L.R., Wang, A., and Ricciuto, D.M. 2011. Evaluating runoff simulations from the Community Land Model 4.0 using observations from flux towers and a mountainous watershed. J. Geophys. Res. 116:D24120. DOI:10.1029/2011JD016276.

Li, H., L. Leung, A. Getirana, M. Huang, H. Wu, Y. Xu, J. Guo and N. Voisin. 2015a. Evaluating global streamflow simulations by a physically-based routing model coupled with the Community Land Model, J. of Hydromet., 16(2):948-971, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-14-0079.1

Li, H., L. Leung, T. Tesfa, N. Voisin, M. Hejazi, L. Liu, Y. Liu, J. Rice, H. Wu, and X. Yang. 2015. Modeling stream temperature in the Anthropocene: An earth system modeling approach, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 7, doi:10.1002/2015MS000471.

Liang, X., Lettenmaier, D.P., Wood, E.F., and Burges, S.J. 1994. A simple hydrologically based model of land surface water and energy fluxes for GSMs. J. Geophys. Res. 99(D7):14,415–14,428.

Lichstein, J.W. and S.W. Pacala, 2011. Local diversity in heterogeneous landscapes: quantitative assessment with a height-structured forest metacommunity model`. Theoretical Ecology 4.2, pp. 269-281.

Lipscomb, W., and Sacks, W. 2012. The CESM land ice model documentation and user’s guide. 46 pp. [Available online at http://www.cesm.ucar.edu/models/cesm1.1/cism/].

Lischke, H. et al., 2006. TreeMig: a forest-landscape model for simulating spatio-temporal patterns from stand to landscape scale. Ecological Modelling 199.4, pp. 409-420. 41

Lloyd, J. and Taylor, J.A., 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Functional Ecology, 8: 315-323.

Lloyd, J., et al. 2010. Optimisation of photosynthetic carbon gain and within-canopy gradients of associated foliar traits for Amazon forest trees. Biogeosci. 7:1833-1859. DOI:10.5194/bg-7-1833-2010.

Lobell, D.B., Bala, G., and Duffy, P.B. 2006. Biogeophysical impacts of cropland management changes on climate. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33:L06708. DOI:10.1029/2005GL025492.

Lombardozzi, D.L., Bonan, G.B., Smith, N.G., Dukes, J.S. 2015. Temperature acclimation of photosynthesis and respiration: A key uncertainty in the carbon cycle-climate feedback. Geophys. Res. Lett. 42:8624-8631.

Loveland, T.R., Reed, B.C., Brown, J.F., Ohlen, D.O., Zhu, Z., Yang, L., and Merchant, J.W. 2000. Development of a global land cover characteristics database and IGBP DISCover from 1 km AVHRR data. Int. J. Remote Sens. 21:1303-1330.

Lowe, P.R. 1977. An approximating polynomial for the computation of saturation vapor pressure. J. Appl. Meteor. 16:100-103.

Luo, Y., Hui, D., and Zhang, D. 2006. Elevated CO2 stimulates net accumulations of carbon and nitrogen in land ecosystems: a meta-analysis. Ecology 87:53-63.

Magill, A.H. et al., 1997. Biogeochemical response of forest ecosystems to simulated chronic nitrogen deposition. Ecological Applications, 7: 402-415.

Mahowald, N.M., Muhs, D.R., Levis, S., Rasch, P.J., Yoshioka, M., Zender, C.S., and Luo, C. 2006. Change in atmospheric mineral aerosols in response to climate: last glacial period, pre-industrial, modern and doubled CO2 climates. J. Geophys. Res. 111:D10202. DOI:10.1029/2005JD006653.

Makela, A. 2002. Derivation of stem taper from the pipe model theory in a carbon balance framework. Tree Phys. 22:891-905.

Mao, J., Thornton, P.E., Shi, X., Zhao, M., and Post, W.M. 2012. Remote sensing evaluation of CLM4 GPP for the period 2000 to 2009. J. Climate 25:5327-5342.

Mao, J., Shi, X., Thornton, P.E., Hoffman, F.M., Zhu, Z., and Ranga B. Myneni, R.B. 2013. Global latitudinal-asymmetric vegetation growth trends and their driving mechanisms: 1982-2009. Remote Sensing 5:1484-1497.

Martin, J.P., Haider, K. and Kassim, G., 1980. Biodegradation and stabilization after 2 years of specific crop, lignin, and polysaccharide carbons in soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 44:1250-1255.

Mary, B., Fresneau, C., Morel, J.L. and Mariotti, A., 1993. C and N cycling during decomposition of root mucilage, roots and glucose in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 25:1005-1014.

McDowell, N.G. et al., 2013. Evaluating theories of drought-induced vegetation mortality using a multimodel experiment framework. New Phytologist 200.2, pp. 304-321.

McGuire, A.D., Melillo, J.M., Joyce, L.A., Kicklighter, D.W., Grace, A.L., Moore III, B., and Vorosmarty, C.J. 1992. Interactions between carbon and nitrogen dynamics in estimating net primary productivity for potential vegetation in North America. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 6:101-124.

Medlyn, B.E., Duursma, R.A., Eamus, D., Ellsworth, D.S., Prentice, I.C., Barton, C.V.M., Crous, K.Y., De Angelis, P., Freeman, M., and Wingate, L., 2011. Reconciling the optimal and empirical approaches to modelling stomatal conductance. Global Change Biology, 17: 2134–2144. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2010.02375.x

Melzer, E., and O’Leary, M.H. 1987. Anapleurotic CO2 Fixation by Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase in C3 Plants. Plant. Physiol. 84:58.

Miller, J.R., Russell, G.L., and Caliri, G. 1994. Continental-scale river flow in climate models. J. Climate 7:914-928.

Millington, R. and Quirk, J.P., 1961. Permeability of Porous Solids. Transactions of the Faraday Society 57:1200-1207.

Mironov, D. et al., 2010. Implementation of the lake parameterisation scheme FLake into the numerical weather prediction model COSMO. Boreal Environment Research 15:218-230.

Mitchell, T.D., and Jones, P.D. 2005. An improved method of constructing a database of monthly climate observations and associated high-resolution grids. Int. J. Climatol. 25:693-712.

Moldrup, P. et al. 2003. Modeling diffusion and reaction in soils: X. A unifying model for solute and gas diffusivity in unsaturated soil. Soil Science 168:321-337.

Moorcroft, P.R., G.C. Hurtt, and S.W. Pacala, 2001. A method for scaling vegetation dynamics: the ecosystem demography model ED. Ecological monographs 71.4, pp. 557-586.

Myneni, R.B., et al. 2002. Global products of vegetation leaf area and fraction absorbed PAR from year one of MODIS data. Remote Sens. Environ. 83:214-231.

Neff, J.C., Harden, J.W. and Gleixner, G. 2005. Fire effects on soil organic matter content, composition, and nutrients in boreal interior Alaska. Canadian Journal of Forest Research-Revue Canadienne De Recherche Forestiere 35:2178-2187.

Neitsch, S.L., Arnold, J.G., Kiniry, J.R., and Williams J.R. 2005. Soil and Water Assessment Tool, Theoretical Documentation: Version 2005. Temple, TX. USDA Agricultural Research Service and Texas A&M Blackland Research Center.

Negron-Juarez, R. Koven, C.D., Riley, W.J., Knox, R.G., Chambers, J.Q. 2015. Environmental Research Letters 10:064017. DOI:10.1088/1748-9326/10/6/064017.

Nemani, R.R., and Running, S.W. 1996. Implementation of a hierarchical global vegetation classification in ecosystem function models. J. Veg. Sci. 7:337-346.

Niinemets, U., Kull, O., and Tenhunen, J.D. 1998. An analysis of light effects on foliar morphology, physiology, and light interception in temperate deciduous woody species of contrasting shade tolerance. Tree Phys. 18:681-696.

Niu, G.-Y., Yang, Z.-L., Dickinson, R.E., and Gulden, L.E. 2005. A simple TOPMODEL-based runoff parameterization (SIMTOP) for use in global climate models. J. Geophys. Res. 110:D21106. DOI:10.1029/2005JD006111.

Niu, G.-Y., and Yang, Z.-L. 2006. Effects of frozen soil on snowmelt runoff and soil water storage at a continental scale. J. Hydrometeor. 7:937-952.

Niu, G.-Y., Yang, Z.-L., Dickinson, R.E., Gulden, L.E., and Su, H. 2007. Development of a simple groundwater model for use in climate models and evaluation with Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment data. J. Geophys. Res. 112:D07103. DOI:10.1029/2006JD007522.

Niu, G.-Y., and Yang, Z.-L. 2007. An observation-based formulation of snow cover fraction and its evaluation over large North American river basins. J. Geophys. Res. 112:D21101. DOI:10.1029/2007JD008674.

Norman, J.M., 1979. Modeling the complete crop canopy. Modification of the Aerial Environment of Crops, pp. 249-280.

Oikawa, S., Hikosaka, K. and Hirose, T., 2005. Dynamics of leaf area and nitrogen in the canopy of an annual herb, Xanthium canadense. Oecologia, 143: 517-526.

Oke, T. 1987. Boundary Layer Climates (2:math:{}^{nd} edition). Routledge, London and New York.

Oleson, K.W., and Bonan, G.B. 2000. The effects of remotely-sensed plant functional type and leaf area index on simulations of boreal forest surface fluxes by the NCAR land surface model. J. Hydrometeor. 1:431-446.

Oleson, K.W., Dai, Y., Bonan, G., Bosilovich, M., Dickinson, R., Dirmeyer, P., Hoffman, F., Houser, P., Levis, S., Niu, G.-Y., Thornton, P., Vertenstein, M., Yang, Z.-L., and Zeng. X. 2004. Technical description of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-461+STR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado. 173 pp.

Oleson, K.W., Niu, G.-Y., Yang, Z.-L., Lawrence, D.M., Thornton, P.E., Lawrence, P.J., Stöckli, R., Dickinson, R.E., Bonan, G.B., Levis, S., Dai, A., and Qian, T. 2008a. Improvements to the Community Land Model and their impact on the hydrological cycle. J. Geophys. Res. 113:G01021. DOI:10.1029/2007JG000563.

Oleson, K.W., Bonan, G.B., Feddema, J., Vertenstein, M., and Grimmond, C.S.B. 2008b. An urban parameterization for a global climate model. 1. Formulation and evaluation for two cities. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47:1038-1060.

Oleson, K.W., Bonan, G.B., Feddema, J., and Vertenstein, M. 2008c. An urban parameterization for a global climate model. 2. Sensitivity to input parameters and the simulated urban heat island in offline simulations. J. Appl. Meteor. Clim. 47:1061-1076.

Oleson, K.W., et al. 2010a. Technical description of version 4.0 of the Community Land model (CLM). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-478+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 257 pp.

Oleson, K.W., Bonan, G.B., Feddema, J., Vertenstein, M., and Kluzek, E. 2010b. Technical description of an urban parameterization for the Community Land Model (CLMU). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-480+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 169 pp.

Oleson, K.W., et al. 2013. Technical description of version 4.5 of the Community Land Model (CLM). NCAR Technical Note NCAR/TN-503+STR, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 420 pp.

Oleson, K.W., and Feddema, J. 2018. Parameterization and surface data improvements and new capabilities for the Community Land Model Urban (CLMU). JAMES, submitted.

Olson, J.S., 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322-331.

Olson, D.M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E.D., Burgess, N.D., Powell, G.V.N., Underwood, E.C., D’Amico, J.A., Itoua, I., Strand, H. E., Morrison, J. C., Loucks, C. J., Allnutt, T. F., Ricketts, T. H., Kura, Y., Lamoreux, J. F., Wettengel, W. W., Heda, P., and Kassem, K. R., 2001. Terrestrial ecoregions of the world a new map of life on earth, Bioscience, 51, 933–938.

Orchard, V.A. and Cook, F.J., 1983. Relationship between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 15: 447-453.

Owen, P.R. 1964. Saltation of uniform grains in air. J. Fluid Mech. 20:225-242.

Ozdogan, M., Rodell, M., Beaudoing, H.K., and Toll, D.L. 2010. Simulating the effects of irrigation over the United States in a land surface model based on satellite-derived agricultural data. Journal of Hydrometeorology 11:171-184.

Page, S.E., Siegert, F., Rieley, J.O., Boehm, H-D.V., Jaya, A., and Limin, S. 2002. The amount of carbon released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia in 1997. Nature 420:61-65.

Panofsky, H.A., and Dutton, J.A. 1984. Atmospheric Turbulence: Models and Methods for Engineering Applications. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Parton, W., Stewart, J. and Cole, C., 1988. Dynamics of C, N, P And S in Grassland Soils - A Model. Biogeochemistry 5:109-131.

Parton, W.J., et al. 1993. Observations and modeling of biomass and soil organic matter dynamics for the grassland biome worlwide. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 7:785-809.

Parton, W. et al. 1996. Generalized model for N2 and N2O production from nitrification and denitrification. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 10:401-412.

Parton, W.J. et al. 2001. Generalized model for NOx and N2O emissions from soils. J. Geophys. Res. 106(D15):17403-17419.

Paterson, W.S.B., 1994. The Physics of Glaciers. Elsevier Science Inc., New York, 480 pp.

Pelletier, J. D., P. D. Broxton, P. Hazenberg, X. Zeng, P. A. Troch, G. Y. Niu, Z. Williams, M. A. Brunke, and D. Gochis, 2016: A gridded global data set of soil, intact regolith, and sedimentary deposit thicknesses for regional and global land surface modeling. J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys. 8:41-65.

Peterson, D.L. and K.C. Ryan, 1986. Modeling postfire conifer mortality for long-range planning. Environmental Management 10.6, pp. 797-808.

Petrescu, A.M.R. et al. 2010. Modeling regional to global CH4 emissions of boreal and arctic wetlands. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 24(GB4009).

Pfeiffer, M., A. Spessa, and J.O. Kaplan, 2013. A model for global biomass burning in preindustrial time: LPJ-LMfire (v1. 0). Geoscientific Model Development 6.3, pp. 643-685.

Philip, J.R. 1957. Evaporation, and moisture and heat fields in the soil. J. Meteor. 14:354-366.

Piao, S.L., et al. 2012. The carbon budget of terrestrial ecosystems in East Asia over the last two decades. Biogeosciences 9:3571-3586.

Pivovarov, A.A., 1972. Thermal Conditions in Freezing Lakes and Reservoirs. John Wiley, New York.

Pollmer, W.G., Eberhard, D., Klein, D., and Dhillon, B.S. 1979. Genetic control of nitrogen uptake and translocation in maize. Crop Sci. 19:82-86.

Pomeroy, J. W., D. M. Gray, K. R. Shook, B. Toth, R. L. H. Essery, A. Pietroniro, and N. Hedstrom. 1998. An evaluation of snow accumulation and ablation processes for land surface modelling. Hydrol. Process. 12:2339–2367.

Portmann, F.T., Siebert, S., and Döll, P. 2010. MIRCA2000 - Global monthly irrigated and rainfed crop areas around the year 2000: A new high-resolution data set for agricultural and hydrological modeling. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 24, GB1011. DOI:10.1029/2008GB003435.

Press, W.H., Teukolsky, S.A., Vetterling, W.T., and Flannery, B.P. 1992. Numerical Recipes in FORTRAN: The Art of Scientific Computing. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Prigent, C., Papa, F., Aires, F., Rossow, W.B. and Matthews, E. 2007. Global inundation dynamics inferred from multiple satellite observations, 1993-2000. J. Geophys. Res. 112(D12).

Pritchard, M.S., Bush, A.B.G., and Marshall, S.J. 2008. Neglecting ice-atmosphere interactions underestimates ice sheet melt in millennial-scale deglaciation simulations. Geophys. Res. Lett. ** 35:L01503. DOI:10.1029/2007GL031738.

Purves, D.W. et al., 2008. Predicting and understanding forest dynamics using a simple tractable model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 105.44, pp. 17018-17022.

Qian, T et al., 2006. Simulation of global land surface conditions from 1948 to 2004: Part I: Forcing data and evaluations. J. Hydrometeorology 7, pp. 953-975.

Ramankutty, N., and Foley, J. A., 1998. Characterizing patterns of global land use: An analysis of global croplands data. Global Biogeochemical Cycles, 12, 667-685.

Ramankutty, N., Evan, A., Monfreda, C., and Foley, J.A. 2008. Farming the Planet. Part 1: The Geographic Distribution of Global Agricultural Lands in the Year 2000. Global Biogeochem. Cycles. 22:GB1003. DOI:10.1029/2007GB002952.

Randlett, D.L., Zak, D.R., Pregitzer, K.S., and Curtis, P.S. 1996. Elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide and leaf litter chemistry: Influences on microbial respiration and net nitrogen mineralization. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 60:1571-1577.

Rastetter, E.B., Ryan, M.G., Shaver, G.R., Melillo, J.M., Nadelhoffer, K.J., Hobbie, J.E., and Aber, J.D. 1991. A general biogeochemical model describing the responses of the C and N cycles in terrestrial ecosystems to changes in CO2, climate and N deposition. Tree Phys. 9:101-126.

Rastner, P., Bolch, T., Mölg, N., Machguth, H., and Paul, F., 2012. The first complete glacier inventory for the whole of Greenland, The Cryosphere Discuss., 6, 2399-2436, 10.5194/tcd-6-2399-2012.

Riley, W. J., Z. M. Subin, D. M. Lawrence, S. C. Swenson, M. S. Torn, L. Meng, N. Mahowald, and P. Hess, 2011a. Barriers to predicting global terrestrial methane fluxes: Analyses using a methane biogeochemistry model integrated in CESM. Biogeosciences, 8, 1925–1953. DOI:10.5194/bg-8-1925-2011.

Riley, W.J. et al. 2011b. CLM4Me, a Methane Biogeochemistry Model Integrated in CESM, Land and Biogeochemistry Model Working Group Meeting, Boulder, CO.

Roesch, A., M. Wild, H. Gilgen, and A. Ohmura. 2001. A new snow cover fraction parametrization for the ECHAM4 GCM, Clim. Dyn., 17:933–946.

Rogers, A., 2014: The use and misuse of Vcmax in Earth system models. Photosynt. Res., 119:1-15.

Rogers, A., B. E. Medlyn, J. S. Dukes, G. Bonan, S. Caemmerer, M. C. Dietze, J. Kattge, A. D. Leakey, L. M. Mercado, and U. Niinemets, 2017: A roadmap for improving the representation of photosynthesis in Earth system models. New Phytologist, 213:22-42.

Ryan, M. G. 1991. A simple method for estimating gross carbon budgets for vegetation in forest ecosystems. Tree Phys. 9:255-266.

Running, S.W. and Coughlan, J.C., 1988. A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. I. Hydrological balance, canopy gas exchange and primary production processes. Ecological Modelling, 42: 125-154.

Running, S.W. et al., 1989. Mapping regional forest evapotranspiration and photosynthesis by coupling satellite data with ecosystem simlation. Ecology, 70: 1090-1101.

Running, S.W. and Gower, S.T., 1991. FOREST BGC, A general model of forest ecosystem processes for regional applications. II. Dynamic carbon allocation and nitrogen budgets. Tree Physiology, 9: 147-160.

Running, S.W. and Hunt, E.R., Jr., 1993. Generalization of a forest ecosystem process model for other biomes, BIOME-BGC, and an applicationfor global-scale models. In: J.R. Ehleringer and C. Field (Editors), Scaling Physiological Processes: Leaf to Globe. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp. 141-158.

Sacks, W. J., Cook, B. I., Buenning, N., Levis, S., and Helkowski, J. H. 2009. Effects of global irrigation on the near-surface climate. Climate Dyn., 33, 159–175. DOI:10.1007/s00382-008-0445-z.

Saggar, S., Tate, K.R., Feltham, C.W., Childs, C.W. and Parshotam, A., 1994. Carbon turnover in a range of allophanic soils amended with {}^{14}C-labelled glucose. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 26: 1263-1271.

Sakaguchi, K., and Zeng, X. 2009. Effects of soil wetness, plant litter, and under-canopy atmospheric stability on ground evaporation in the Community Land Model (CLM3.5). J. Geophys. Res. 114:D01107. DOI:10.1029/2008JD010834.

Sato, H., A. Itoh, and T. Kohyama, 2007. SEIB-DGVM: A new Dynamic Global Vegetation Model using a spatially explicit individual-based approach. Ecological Modelling 200.3, pp. 2793307.

Schaaf, C.B., Gao, F., Strahler, A.H., Lucht, W., Li, X., Tsang, T., Strugnell, N.C., Zhang, X., Jin, Y., and Muller, J.-P. 2002. First operational BRDF, albedo nadir reflectance products from MODIS. Remote Sens. Environ. 83:135-148.

Schlesinger, W.H., 1997. Biogeochemistry: an analysis of global change. Academic Press, London, 588 pp.

Schnell, S. and King, G.M., 1996. Responses of methanotrophic activity in soils and cultures to water stress. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62:3203-3209.

Segers, R., 1998. Methane production and methane consumption: a review of processes underlying wetland methane fluxes. Biogeochemistry 41:23-51.

Sellers, P.J. 1985. Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis and transpiration. Int. J. Remote Sens. 6:1335-1372.

Sellers, P.J., Mintz, Y., Sud, Y.C., and Dalcher, A. 1986. A simple biosphere model (SiB) for use within general circulation models. J. Atmos. Sci. 43:505-531.

Sellers, P.J., Hall, F.G., Asrar, G., Strebel, D.E., and Murphy, R.E. 1988. The First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 69:22-27.

Sellers, P.J., Berry, J.A., Collatz, G.J., Field, C.B., and Hall, F.G. 1992. Canopy reflectance, photosynthesis, and transpiration. III. A reanalysis using improved leaf models and a new canopy integration scheme. Remote Sens. Environ. 42:187-216.

Sellers, P.J., et al. 1995. The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS): An overview and early results from the 1994 field year. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. 76:1549-1577.

Sellers, P.J., Randall, D.A., Collatz, G.J., Berry, J.A., Field, C.B., Dazlich, D.A., Zhang, C., Collelo, G.D., and Bounoua, L. 1996. A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part I: Model formulation. J. Climate 9:676-705.

Sellers, Piers J et al. (1996). A revised land surface parameterization (SiB2) for atmospheric GCMs. Part II: The generation of global fields of terrestrial biophysical parameters from satellite data. Journal of climate 9.4, pp. 706-737.

Shi, X., Mao, J., Thornton, P.E., and Huang, M. 2013. Spatiotemporal patterns of evapotranspiration in response to multiple environmental factors simulated by the Community Land Model. Environ. Res. Lett. 8:024012.

Shi, M., J. B. Fisher, E. R. Brzostek, and R. P. Phillips, 2016: Carbon cost of plant nitrogen acquisition: global carbon cycle impact from an improved plant nitrogen cycle in the Community Land Model. Glob. Change Biol., 22:1299-1314.

Shiklomanov, I.A. 2000. Appraisal and assessment of world water resources. Water International 25:11-32.

Siebert, S., Döll, P., Hoogeveen, J., Faures, J.M., Frenken, K., Feick, S., 2005. Development and validation of the global map of irrigation areas. Hydrol Earth Syst Sc 9:535–547

Simard, M., Pinto, N., Fisher, J.B., and Baccini, A. (2011), Mapping forest canopy height globally with spaceborne lidar. J. Geophys. Res., 116, G04021, doi:10.1029/2011JG001708.

Simpson, R.J., Lambers, H., and Dalling, M.J. 1983. Nitrogen redistribution during grain growth in wheat (Triticum avestivum L.). Plant Physiol. 71:7-14.

Sitch, S et al. (2003). Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Global Change Biology 9.2, pp. 161-185.

Sivak, M. 2013. Air conditioning versus heating: climate control is more energy demanding in Minneapolis than in Miami. Environ. Res. Lett., 8, doi:10.1088/1748-9326/8/1/014050.

Smith, B., I.C. Prentice, and M.T. Sykes, 2001. Representation of vegetation dynamics in the modelling of terrestrial ecosystems: comparing two contrasting approaches within European climate space. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10.6, pp. 621-637.

Smith, A.M.S., Wooster, M.J., Drake, N.A., Dipotso, F.M. and Perry, G.L.W., 2005. Fire in African savanna: Testing the impact of incomplete combustion on pyrogenic emissions estimates. Ecological Applications, 15: 1074-1082.

Smith, A.M. and M. Stitt, 2007. Coordination of carbon supply and plant growth. Plant, cell & environment 30.9, pp. 1126-1149.

Sollins, P., 1982. Input and decay of coarse woody debris in coniferous stands in western Oregon and Washington. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 12: 18-28.

Son, Y. and Gower, S.T., 1991. Aboveground nitrogen and phosphorus use by five plantation-grown trees with different leaf longevities. Biogeochemistry, 14: 167-191.

Sørensen, L.H., 1981. Carbon-nitrogen relationships during the humification of cellulose in soils containing different amounts of clay. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 13: 313-321.

Sperry, J.S., Adler, F.R., Campbell, G.S. and Comstock, J.P. 1998. Limitation of plant water use by rhizosphere and xylem conductance: results from a model. Plant, Cell & Environment, 21: 347–359. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3040.1998.00287.x

Sperry, J.S. and Love, D.M. 2015. What plant hydraulics can tell us about responses to climate-change droughts. New Phytol, 207: 14–27. doi:10.1111/nph.13354

Sprugel, D.G., Ryan, M.G., Brooks, J.R., Vogt, K.A., and Martin, T.A. 1995. Respiration from the organ level to stand level. pp. 255-299. In: W. K. Smith and T. M. Hinkley (editors) Resource Physiology of Conifers. Academic Press, San Diego,CA.

Stauffer, D., and Aharony, A. 1994. Introduction to Percolation Theory. Taylor and Francis, London.

Still, C.J., Berry, J.A., Collatz, G.J., and DeFries, R.S. 2003. Global distribution of C3 and C4 vegetation: carbon cycle implications. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 17:1006. DOI:10.1029/2001GB001807.

Stöckli, R., Lawrence, D.M., Niu, G.-Y., Oleson, K.W., Thornton, P.E., Yang, Z.-L., Bonan, G.B., Denning, A.S., and Running, S.W. 2008. Use of FLUXNET in the Community Land Model development. J. Geophys. Res. 113:G01025. DOI:10.1029/2007JG000562.

Strack, M., Kellner, E. and Waddington, J.M., 2006. Effect of entrapped gas on peatland surface level fluctuations. Hydrological Processes 20:3611-3622.

Strahler, A.H., Muchoney, D., Borak, J., Friedl, M., Gopal, S., Lambin, E., and Moody. A. 1999. MODIS Land Cover Product: Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (Version 5.0). Boston University, Boston.

Stull, R.B. 1988. An Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Subin, Z.M., Riley, W.J. and Mironov, D. 2012a. Improved lake model for climate simulations, J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst., 4, M02001. DOI:10.1029/2011MS000072.

Subin, Z.M., Murphy, L.N., Li, F., Bonfils, C. and Riley, W.J., 2012b. Boreal lakes moderate seasonal and diurnal temperature variation and perturb atmospheric circulation: analyses in the Community Earth System Model 1 (CESM1). Tellus A, North America, 64.

Sun, Y., Gu, L., and Dickinson, R. E. 2012. A numerical issue in calculating the coupled carbon and water fluxes in a climate model, J. Geophys. Res., 117, D22103. DOI:10.1029/2012JD018059.

Swenson, S.C., Lawrence, D.M., and Lee, H. 2012. Improved Simulation of the Terrestrial Hydrological Cycle in Permafrost Regions by the Community Land Model. JAMES, 4, M08002. DOI:10.1029/2012MS000165.

Swenson, S.C. and Lawrence, D.M. 2012. A New Fractional Snow Covered Area Parameterization for the Community Land Model and its Effect on the Surface Energy Balance. JGR, 117, D21107. DOI:10.1029/2012JD018178.

Swenson, S.C., and D. M. Lawrence. 2014. Assessing a dry surface layer-based soil resistance parameterization for the Community Land Model using GRACE and FLUXNET-MTE data. JGR, 119, 10, 299–10,312, DOI:10.1002/2014JD022314.

Swenson, S.C., and D. M. Lawrence. 2015. A GRACE-based assessment of interannual groundwater dynamics in the Community Land Model. WRR, 51, doi:10.1002/2015WR017582.

Ta, C.T. and Weiland, R.T. 1992. Nitrogen partitioning in maize during ear development. Crop Sci. 32:443-451.

Tang, J.Y. and Riley, W.J. 2013. A new top boundary condition for modeling surface diffusive exchange of a generic volatile tracer: Theoretical analysis and application to soil evaporation. Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 17:873-893.

Tarnocai, C., Kettles, I. M., and Lacelle, B., 2011. Peatlands of Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 6561, CD-ROM. DOI:10.495/288786.

Taylor, B.R., Parkinson, D. and Parsons, W.F.J., 1989. Nitrogen and lignin content as predictors of litter decay rates: A microcosm test. Ecology, 70: 97-104.

Thomas R.Q., Brookshire E.N., Gerber S. 2015. Nitrogen limitation on land: how can it occur in Earth system models? Global Change Biology, 21, 1777-1793, doi:10.1111/gcb.12813.

Thonicke, K., Venevsky, S., Sitch, S., and Cramer, W. 2001. The role of fire disturbance for global vegetation dynamics: coupling fire into a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Global Ecology and Biogeography 10:661-667.

Thonicke, K. et al., 2010. The influence of vegetation, fire spread and fire behaviour on biomass burning and trace gas emissions: results from a process-based model. Biogeosciences 7.6, pp. 1991-2011.

Thornton, P.E., 1998. Regional ecosystem simulation: combining surface- and satellite-based observations to study linkages between terrestrial energy and mass budgets. Ph.D. Thesis, The University of Montana, Missoula, 280 pp.

Thornton, P.E., Law, B.E., Gholz, H.L., Clark, K.L., Falge, E., Ellsworth, D.S., Goldstein, A.H., Monson, R.K., Hollinger, D., Falk, M., Chen, J., and Sparks, J.P. 2002. Modeling and measuring the effects of disturbance history and climate on carbon and water budgets in evergreen needleleaf forests. Agric. For. Meteor. 113:185-222.

Thornton, P.E., and Rosenbloom, N.A. 2005. Ecosystem model spin-up: estimating steady state conditions in a coupled terrestrial carbon and nitrogen cycle model. Ecological Modelling 189:25-48.

Thornton, P.E., and Zimmermann, N.E. 2007. An improved canopy integration scheme for a land surface model with prognostic canopy structure. J. Climate 20:3902-3923.

Thornton, P.E., Lamarque, J.-F., Rosenbloom, N.A., and Mahowald, N.M. 2007. Influence of carbon-nitrogen cycle coupling on land model response to CO2 fertilization and climate variability. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 21:GB4018.

Thornton, P.E., Doney, S.C., Lindsay, K., Moore, J.K., Mahowald, N., Randerson, J.T., Fung, I., Lamarque, J.F., Feddema, J.J., and Lee, Y.H. 2009. Carbon-nitrogen interactions regulate climate-carbon cycle feedbacks: results from an atmosphere-ocean general circulation model. Biogeosci. 6:2099-2120.

Tian, H. et al. 2010. Spatial and temporal patterns of CH4 and N2O fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems of North America during 1979-2008: application of a global biogeochemistry model. Biogeosciences 7:2673-2694.

Toon, O.B., McKay, C.P., Ackerman, T.P., and Santhanam, K. 1989. Rapid calculation of radiative heating rates and photodissociation rates in inhomogeneous multiple scattering atmospheres. J. Geophys. Res. 94(D13):16,287-16,301.

Turetsky, M.R., Wieder, R.K., Halsey, L.A., and Vitt, D.H. 2002. Current disturbance and the diminishing peatland carbon sink. Geophys. Res. Lett. 29:1526. DOI:10.1029/2001GL014000.

Turetsky, M.R., Amiro, B.D., Bosch, E., and Bhatti, J.S. 2004. Historical burn area in western Canadian peatlands and its relationship to fire weather indices. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 18:GB4014. DOI:10.1029/2004GB002222.

Tye, A.M., et al. 2005. The fate of N-15 added to high Arctic tundra to mimic increased inputs of atmospheric nitrogen released from a melting snowpack. Global Change Biology 11:1640-1654.

Unland, H.E., Houser, P.R., Shuttleworth, W.J., and Yang, Z.-L. 1996. Surface flux measurement and modeling at a semi-arid Sonoran Desert site. Agric. For. Meteor. 82:119-153.

UNSTAT, 2005. National Accounts Main Aggregates Database, United Nations Statistics Division.

Uriarte, M. et al., 2009. Natural disturbance and human land use as determinants of tropical forest dynamics: results from a forest simulator. Ecological Monographs 79.3, pp. 423-443.

Vallano, D.M. and Sparks, J.P. 2007. Quantifying foliar uptake of gaseous itrogen dioxide using enriched foliar \delta^{15} N values. New Phytologist 177:946-955.

van der Werf, G.R., Randerson, J.T., Giglio, L., Collatz, G.J., Mu, M., Kasibhatla, S.P., Morton, D.C., DeFries, R.S., Jin, Y., van Leeuwen, T.T. 2010. Global fire emissions and the contribution of deforestation, savanna, forest, agricultural, and peat fires (1997-2009) Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10:11707-11735.

van Veen, J.A., Ladd, J.N. and Frissel, M.J., 1984. Modelling C and N turnover through the microbial biomass in soil. Plant and Soil, 76: 257-274.

van Kampenhout, L., J.T.M. Lenaerts, W.H. Lipscomb, W.J. Sacks, D.M. Lawrence, A.G. Slater, and M.R. van den Broeke, 2017. Improving the Representation of Polar Snow and Firn in the Community Earth System Model. Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems 9, no. 7: 2583–2600. https://doi.org/10.1002/2017MS000988.

Van Tricht, K., Lhermitte, S., Gorodetskaya, I.V. and van Lipzig, N.P.M., 2016. Improving satellite-retrieved surface radiative fluxes in polar regions using a smart sampling approach. The Cryosphere 10:2379-2397. doi:10.5194/tc-10-2379-2016

Van Vuuren, D.P., Lucas, P.S., and Hilderink, H.B.M., 2006. Downscaling drivers of global environmental change: enabling use of global SRES scenarios at the national and grid levels, Report 550025001, Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency, 45 pp.

Vanninen, P., and Makela, A. 2005. Carbon budget for Scots pine trees: effects of size, competition and site fertility on growth allocation and production. Tree Phys. 25:17-30.

Venevsky, S. et al., 2002. Simulating fire regimes in human-dominated ecosystems: Iberian Peninsula case study. Global Change Biology 8.10, pp. 984-998.

Verdin, K. L., and S. K. Greenlee, 1996. Development of continental scale digital elevation models and extraction of hydrographic features, paper presented at the Third International Conference/Workshop on Integrating GIS and Environmental Modeling, Santa Fe, New Mexico, 21–26 January, Natl. Cent. for Geogr. Inf. and Anal., Santa Barbara, Calif.

Vionnet, V., E. Brun, S. Morin, A. Boone, S. Faroux, P. Le Moigne, E. Martin, and J.-M. Willemet. The Detailed Snowpack Scheme Crocus and Its Implementation in SURFEX v7.2. GMD 5, no. 3 (May 24, 2012): 773-91. https://doi.org/10.5194/gmd-5-773-2012.

Viovy, N. 2011. CRUNCEP dataset. [Description available at http://dods.extra.cea.fr/data/p529viov/cruncep/readme.htm. Data available at http://dods.extra.cea.fr/store/p529viov/cruncep/V4_1901_2011/].

Vitousek, P.M., and Howarth, R.W. 1991. Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur? Biogeochem. 13:87-115.

Walter, B.P., Heimann, M. and Matthews, E., 2001. Modeling modern methane emissions from natural wetlands 1. Model description and results. J. Geophys. Res. 106(D24):34189-34206.

Wania, R., Ross, I. and Prentice, I.C. 2009. Integrating peatlands and permafrost into a dynamic global vegetation model: 2. Evaluation and sensitivity of vegetation and carbon cycle processes. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 23.

Wania, R., Ross, I. and Prentice, I.C. 2010. Implementation and evaluation of a new methane model within a dynamic global vegetation model LPJ-WHyMe v1.3. Geoscientific Model Development Discussions 3:1-59.

Wang, A., and Zeng, X. 2009. Improving the treatment of vertical snow burial fraction over short vegetation in the NCAR CLM3. Adv. Atmos. Sci. 26:877-886. DOI:10.1007/s00376-009-8098-3.

Weng, E.S. et al., 2014. Scaling from individuals to ecosystems in an Earth System Model using a mathematically tractable model of height-structured competition for light. Biogeosciences Discussions 11.12, pp. 17757-17860.

White, M.A., Thornton, P.E., and Running, S.W. 1997. A continental phenology model for monitoring vegetation responses to interannual climatic variability. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 11:217-234.

White, M.A., Thornton, P.E., Running, S.W., and Nemani, R.R. 2000. Parameterization and sensitivity analysis of the Biome-BGC terrestrial ecosystem model: net primary production controls. Earth Interactions 4:1-85.

Wieder, W. R., Cleveland, C. C., Lawrence, D. M., and Bonan, G. B. 2015. Effects of model structural uncertainty on carbon cycle projections: biological nitrogen fixation as a case study. Environmental Research Letters, 10(4), 044016.

Williams, M., Rastetter, E.B., Fernandes, D.N., Goulden, M.L., Wofsy, S.C., Shaver, G.R., Melillo, J.M., Munger, J.W., Fan, S.M. and Nadelhoffer, K.J. 1996. Modelling the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum in a Quercus–Acer stand at Harvard Forest: the regulation of stomatal conductance by light, nitrogen and soil/plant hydraulic properties. Plant, Cell & Environment, 19: 911–927. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3040.1996.tb00456.x

Wiscombe, W.J., and Warren, S.G. 1980. A model for the spectral albedo of snow. I. Pure snow. J. Atmos. Sci. 37:2712-2733.

Wood, E.F., Lettenmaier, D.P., and Zartarian, V.G. 1992. A land-surface hydrology parameterization with subgrid variability for general circulation models. J. Geophys. Res. 97(D3):2717–2728. DOI:10.1029/91JD01786.

World Bank, 2004. World development indicators 2004, Oxford University Press, New York, 416 pp.

Wu, H., J. S. Kimball, N. Mantua, and J. Stanford, 2011: Automated upscaling of river networks for macroscale hydrological modeling. Water Resour. Res., 47, W03517, doi:10.1029/2009WR008871.

Wu, H., J. S. Kimball, H. Li, M. Huang, L. R. Leung, and R. F. Adler, 2012. A New Global River Network Database for Macroscale Hydrologic modeling, Water Resour. Res., 48, W09701, doi:10.1029/2012WR012313.

Xiaodong, Y. and H.H. Shugart, 2005. FAREAST: a forest gap model to simulate dynamics and patterns of eastern Eurasian forests. Journal of Biogeography 32.9, pp. 1641-1658.

Xu, C., R. Fisher, S. D. Wullschleger, C. J. Wilson, M. Cai, and N. G. McDowell, 2012: Toward a mechanistic modeling of nitrogen limitation on vegetation dynamics. PloS one, 7:e37914.

Yang, Z.-L. 1998. Technical note of a 10-layer soil moisture and temperature model. Unpublished manuscript.

Zender, C.S., Bian, H., and Newman, D. 2003. Mineral dust entrainment and deposition (DEAD) model: Description and 1990s dust climatology. ** J. Geophys. Res. 108(D14):4416. DOI:10.1029/2002JD002775.

Zeng, X., and Dickinson, R.E. 1998. Effect of surface sublayer on surface skin temperature and fluxes. J.Climate 11:537-550.

Zeng, X., Zhao, M., and Dickinson, R.E. 1998. Intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms for the computation of sea surface fluxes using the TOGA COARE and TAO data. J. Climate 11:2628-2644.

Zeng, X. 2001. Global vegetation root distribution for land modeling. J. Hydrometeor. 2:525-530.

Zeng, X., Shaikh, M., Dai, Y., Dickinson, R.E., and Myneni, R. 2002. Coupling of the Common Land Model to the NCAR Community Climate Model. J. Climate 15:1832-1854.

Zeng, X., Dickinson, R.E., Barlage, M., Dai, Y., Wang, G., and Oleson, K. 2005. Treatment of under-canopy turbulence in land models. J. Climate 18:5086-5094.

Zeng, X., and Wang, A. 2007. Consistent parameterization of roughness length and displacement height for sparse and dense canopies in land models. J. Hydrometeor. 8:730-737.

Zeng, X., and Decker, M. 2009. Improving the numerical solution of soil moisture-based Richards equation for land models with a deep or shallow water table. J. Hydrometeor. 10:308-319.

Zeng, X., Zeng, X., and Barlage, M. 2008. Growing temperate shrubs over arid and semiarid regions in the Community Land Model - Dynamic Global Vegetation Model. Global Biogeochem. Cycles 22:GB3003. DOI:10.1029/2007GB003014.

Zhang, Y., Li, C.S., Trettin, C.C., Li, H. and Sun, G., 2002. An integrated model of soil, hydrology, and vegetation for carbon dynamics in wetland ecosystems. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 16. DOI:10.1029/2001GB001838.

Zhuang, Q., et al. 2004. Methane fluxes between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere at northern high latitudes during the past century: A retrospective analysis with a process-based biogeochemistry model. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 18. DOI:10.1029/2004GB002239.

Zilitinkevich, S.S. 1970. Dynamics of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer. Leningrad Gidrometeor.